In Indonesian material, we recognize 5 different types of paragraphs based on the author's objectives, namely:
- Narrative paragraph
- Paragraph Description
- Exposition Paragraph
- Argument Paragraph
- Persuasion Paragraphs
this time we will focus on discussing paragraphs of argument. The word argumentation comes from English, that is " argumentation" which means reason, explanation, description, or proof. So, argumentation is giving a strong and convincing reason. Therefore, the discourse that we call argumentation is a discourse (essay) that presents reasons, examples, and strong and convincing evidence, so that people will be influenced and justify our opinions, ideas, attitudes, and beliefs. Finally, he will act according to our will.
Argumentation is a description or writing that seeks to prove the truth of something, or to reject an attorney. The target to be achieved is to influence the attitudes and opinions of readers or listeners so that they change attitudes and adapt them to the attitudes of writers and authors. Thus, the argument emphasizes the evidences of what is stated.
Definition of Argument Paragraph
- Argument paragraphs are types of paragraphs that express the ideas, ideas, or opinions of the author accompanied by evidence and facts that actually happened.
- According to Priyatni (2008: 148), argumentation paragraphs are paragraphs aimed at convincing something to the reader.
- Argument paragraphs are paragraphs or essays that prove the truth about something.
- According to Keraf (1996: 76) the argumentation paragraph is a paragraph that aims to maintain the truth and opinions of the readers to behave and think like the author.
- Argumentation is an essay that aims to prove the truth of an opinion / conclusion with data / facts as reasons / evidence.
- Argument paragraphs are paragraphs or essays that prove the truth about something.
- According to the Big Indonesian Dictionary, argumentation is a reason to reinforce or reject an opinion, stand, or idea.
Based on the six definitions of the arguments paragraph above, it can be concluded that the arguments paragraph is a paragraph that expresses the ideas, ideas, or opinions of the author about something that is accompanied by evidence or facts that actually happened and aims to convince the reader of the truth of something.
Characteristics of Argument Paragraphs
- explain opinions so that readers are sure,
- need facts for proof in the form of pictures / graphics, etc.,
- explore the source of ideas from observation, experience, and research,
- Concluding remarks.
- there are statements, ideas, or opinions expressed by the author,
- there are reasons, data, or facts that support,
- justification based on data and facts submitted.
Purpose of Writing Argument Paragraphs
- To express the ideas, views, or ideas of the author
- To encourage or prevent someone from doing something
- To influence reader behavior
- To attract readers' sympathy
- To make the reader confident of the writer's idea
Structure Writing Argument Paragraphs
- Introduction aims to attract the attention of the reader, focus the attention of the reader on the argument to be conveyed, or show the basics why the argument was put forward.
- The body aims to prove the truth that will be conveyed in paragraphs of argument so that the conclusions to be reached are also true. The truth that is conveyed in the body of the argument must be analyzed, arranged, and stated by making observations, experiments, composing facts, and logical thinking.
- The conclusion or summary aims to prove to the reader that the truth to be conveyed through the process of reasoning can indeed be accepted as something logical.
Data and facts used to compile discourse or argumentation paragraphs can be obtained through interviews, questionnaires, observations, field research, and library research. At the end of a paragraph or essay, conclusions need to be presented. This conclusion distinguishes the argument from the exposition.
STEPS IN ARRUMENTATION PARAGRAPH
- Make a topic first
- Set a goal essay
- Conduct field observations
- Make a skeleton
- Develop a skeletal framework
- Make conclusions
Benefits of Argument Paragraphs
- Argument paragraphs are usually used to write scientific papers.
- In addition, the paragraph of argument is also used when we criticize something.
Pattern of Argument Paragraph Development
Some patterns of paragraph argument development, namely:
- Pattern of Analogy / Comparison -> inductive reasoning by comparing two things that have many similarities.
- Generalization / General Pattern -> inductive reasoning by drawing general conclusions based on a number of data.
- The Pattern of Cause and Effect -> starts with the specific facts that are causes, coming to conclusions that are the results.
- The Pattern of Causation -> starts with the fact that is considered as an effect, then goes to the cause caused by the effect.
Example 1 (Analogy / Comparison Pattern)
Human nature is like rice that is spread out in a vast rice field. When humans achieve intelligence, greatness, and wealth, their nature will be humble and generous. Likewise with rice that is increasingly contained, he will be increasingly crouching. If the rice is empty, it will stand up straight.
Example 2 (Generalization / General Pattern)
After the essays of grade 8 children were examined, it turned out that Ali, Toto, Alex, and Burhan got a value of 8. The other children got a grade of 7. Only Maman got a grade of 6, and no one got any grades. It can be said, 8th graders are quite good at writing.
Example 3 (Causal Pattern)
This year's dry season is quite long. Previously, many trees in the forest as water absorbent were cut down. Besides that, irrigation in this village is not that clear. Coupled with the increasingly expensive fertilizer prices and the lack of knowledge of farmers in working on agricultural land. Therefore, it is not surprising that the harvest in this village always fails.
Example 4 (Pattern of Effect)
The number of street children in big cities is increasing every day. They filled the main streets in the city center with all their behavior and actions. There are various ways they can survive in the streets, from polite to the most brutal. They roam the streets and make a living by begging. This phenomenon began to appear symptomatic when the economic crisis hit our country. The prolonged crisis is the cause of life difficulties in all sectors / fields.
Example Paragraphs of Short Arguments About Education and Its Structure
According to Iskandar, it is time for the community to change the paradigm so that junior high school graduates do not go into high school. If you are more talented in the professional path, you should choose SMK. He reminded a number of risks for junior high school graduates who carelessly continue their schooling. For example, a junior high school graduate who does not have the potential talent-interest in the academic path to college, but forced himself to enter high school, he will not pass the UAN because it is difficult to attend high school. Without passing the UAN, it is impossible to get to college. In the end they will become unemployed because studying in high school does not provide provisions for work. (1)
Maintaining soil fertility is an absolute requirement for every agricultural business. As long as plants are in the process of producing, this soil fertility will be reduced. Even though soil fertility must be improved again by fertilizing and using the land as well as possible. The best example of how to use land and how to maintain its fertility, can be found in forests that have not been cultivated by farmers. (2)
The spirit of heroism must always be nurtured and developed because of the spirit of heroism. Development in our country can run successfully. The spirit of heroism will develop into noble values, personality traits, big spirited, responsible, dedicated, loyal, tough, and love towards others. All these characteristics are needed to support development in various fields. (3)
Body of Arguments
Some Indonesian children have not been able to enjoy the happiness of their childhood. This statement was made by an expert in educational psychology Sukarton (1992) that many children under the age of 15 have been involved to make a living by their parents. It can be seen that there are still many children who are busking or begging at crossroads or scavenging garbage boxes at the TPA, then the results are left to their parents to support their family life. Moreover, since our country has a monetary crisis, the tendency of parents to employ children as a support for the family's economy is increasingly visible everywhere.
Media education is very important in achieving educational goals. However, some of us consider it less important. In Indonesia alone, the distribution of educational media is uneven. For example, in Papua where currently the teaching staff is still lacking, plus more with a lack of educational media. As a result, the level of intelligence varies between regions. Supposedly, the government's efforts in educating the life of the nation must continue to be improved. Especially in the distribution of educational media in remote areas.
The Cinta Bunda High School is named the best school in Indonesia. Many outstanding students are printed by this school. This is evidenced by the existence of Olympic champions who empties from this school. More than that, other achievements also boast other than in the academic field, there are other fields that also show achievements such as sports and arts.
Last year the school sent 20 athletes representing Indonesia in the Sea Games championship. This school choir has also participated in international choir contests in Barcelona, Spain.
This proud achievement did not just happen, but it was all due to the training and hard work of the teacher council and also the school committee who were always committed to producing students with superior graduates.
Education in Indonesia today is still quite far behind education in other countries in the world.
Even Indonesia itself is still inferior to our neighboring countries, namely Malaysia and Singapore in the field of education.
This can be witnessed from the large number of their population who get education up to college.
While in Indonesia, the number of people who get education alone is still far behind with other countries, especially in disadvantaged areas such as NTB, NTT, Papua and many other areas.
The underdevelopment of education in these areas is due to unequal education in the State of Indonesia. The government only builds educational facilities in urban areas, specifically the island of Java.
Not only that, the limited number of teachers in the area also helped create further access to education in the area.
Finally, education in Indonesia is uneven and tends to lag behind, so it has not been able to compete with other countries in the world.
Example Paragraphs on Arguments About Culture
Many positive and negative aspects of this JAVA DAY program. If judging from the positive side, using Javanese language, Javanese culture will not be easily eroded by the times. Especially considering the current conditions, most of the younger generation of native Javanese actually can not speak Javanese. The environment in which they developed did not make them familiar with Javanese. As a result, when having to interact with people outside the environment who still use Javanese, communication becomes obstructed.
Viewed from the negative side, this program can cause big problems. This is because the students who study in Surabaya are not only native Javanese students. Many students from outside Java cannot speak Javanese, even do not know the language.
Example Paragraph Arguments About Religion
In the information age, the diversity of society tends to be a burden rather than the nation's capital. This can be seen from the emergence of various problems whose sources "smell" of diversity, especially in the field of religion. A number of serious issues are religious in nature, such as in Poso, Central Sulawesi, Ambon. Maluku has indeed subsided. However, new problems have also arisen, as is the case now with the polemic about the presence of Ahmadiyah followers.
Example Paragraph Argumentation About Health
Cigarettes contain many harmful substances. When we smoke cigarettes that feel good, but cigarettes also damage our bodies slowly with the poisons they contain. There are substances in cigarettes that are addictive or addictive. The addictive substance in cigarettes is acetone. Aceton is more often used for cleaning nails. The aceton smell also combines, but because it also mixes with other substances in cigarettes the smell disappears.
Due to the combustion process, toxic gas is added. Toxic gas is carbon monoxide (CO). This gas comes out because of the burning of a substance. Carbon monoxide is a dangerous gas. This gas is usually produced by motorized vehicles. The characteristics of gfas are colorless. No smell, no taste. This gas can also be used for capital punishment, the gas chamber. Apart from these substances many dangerous substances contained therein.
(The three examples of the arguments paragraph above are taken from My Indonesian Language My Country 1 for Class X Senior High School and MA pages 148-149)
Example Paragraph Argumentation About the Environment
Environmental damage has actually happened in almost all regions in the world, and it is all because of human activity that is not responsible for the actions of his actions. Environmental damage is also usually caused by the lack of care and concern for the citizens of the environment. But even though we also know that our environment has been damaged, we also still do not care about the environment.
After that, from the damage to the environment, we can also feel things that we don't want, but we don't even avoid things that we don't want, why? it's all because humans have a selfish nature that is too high. But indeed in this world there are still some people who still care about the environment but do not exceed 50% of the people in the world. For example: At school there may be only 10 students out of hundreds of students who care about the environment, or maybe none at all
It all happened because of excessive pollution, no greening, illegal logging, littering that does not want to be responsible. If all the people in this world have a sense of responsibility like me, maybe at this time all the environment will be maintained neatly and cleanly.
In addition, there are many consequences that we will get when we damage the environment, for example, air pollution which makes us breathless, then illegal logging that makes no place to absorb water, and hopefully all humans do is to save energy. If we care about the environment, let's take care of the environment so that it looks neat and clean as before as it was clean and tidy.
And the conclusion of my writing, I want everyone to be able to apply to protect the environment regardless of obstacles, as far as possible to protect the environment.
Example Paragraph Argumentation About Economics
The cost of education in Indonesia today can be said to be expensive. Although the government has provided assistance, students are still required to pay fees for school needs, such as uniforms, clothes, books, and so on.
The high cost of education is not only in elementary schools, but also in college.
Many children who have graduated from high school prefer to work compared to continuing to college. So that education in Indonesia is uneven and only concentrated on people who are able.
As for the poor, higher education is only a dream.
Example Paragraph Arguments About Schools
Sultan Agung Tirtayasa Vocational School won an award as the best school in Indonesia. Many produce high-achieving students by the Sulthan Agung Tirtayasa Vocational School.
This sort of thing is proven by the existence of successful Olympic champions from this school. Not only that, other proud achievements other than in the field of accounting economics, there are other fields that also excel such as sports and automotive.
One year ago, this school sent 20 athletes as representatives of Indonesia in the Sea Games event such as long jump, this school has participated in an international long jump competition in London, England.
This proud achievement did not just happen, but it was all due to the hard work of the teacher council and the school committee who were always committed to producing students with good grades.
THE DIFFERENCE OF ARGUMENTATION PARAGRAPH WITH EXPOSITION PARAGRAPH
- Exposition aims to explain and explain while the argumentation to influence the reader.
- Exposition uses examples, graphs, etc. to explain something that we put forward, while arguments provide examples to prove that something we say is true.
- The closing at the end of the exposition usually confirms something previously described. The conclusion at the end of the argument is usually in the form of a conclusion on something previously described.
THE DIFFERENCE OF PARAGRAPH ARGUMENTATION WITH PARAGRAPH PERSUATION
- The argument aims to influence the reader to agree that our opinion is true, while persuasion is to influence the reader to do something.
- The argument includes reason and evidence, while persuasion includes reason, is motoric in the essay
THE DIFFERENCE OF ARGUMENTATION PARAGRAPH WITH OTHER PARAGRAPH
- Narrative paragraph
Tells or narrates an event or event so that it looks as if the reader has experienced that event.
- Paragraph Description
Describe something (object) in detail or in detail so that it looks as if the reader sees, hears, and feels it himself.
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